Wc Command in Linux (Count Number of Lines, Words, and Characters)
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On Linux and Unix-like operating systems, the
wc command allows you to count the number of lines, words, characters, and bytes of each given file or standard input and print the result.
In this tutorial, we will show you how to use the
wc command through simple and practical examples.
How to Use the
The syntax for the
wc command is as follows:
wc OPTION... [FILE]...
wc command can accept zero or more input
FILE names. If no
FILE is specified, or when
wc will read the standard input. A word is a string of characters delimited by a space, tab, or newline.
In it’s simplest form when used without any options, the
wc command will print four columns, the number of lines, words, byte counts and the name of the file for each file passed as an argument. When using the standard input the fourth column (filename) is not displayed.
For example, the following command will display information about the virtual file
The output will look something like the following:
448 3632 22226 /proc/cpuinfo
- 448 is the number of lines.
- 3632 is the number of words.
- 22226 is the number of characters.
When using the standard input, the file name is not shown:
wc < /proc/cpuinfo
448 3632 22226
To display information about more than one file, pass the filenames, as arguments, separated by space:
wc /proc/cpuinfo /proc/meminfo
The command will give you information about each file and a line including total statistics:
448 3632 22226 /proc/cpuinfo 49 143 1363 /proc/meminfo 497 3775 23589 total
The options below allow you to select which counts are printed.
--lines- Print the number of lines.
--words- Print the number of words.
--chars- Print the number of characters.
--bytes- Print the number of bytes.
--max-line-length- Print the length of the longest line.
When using multiple options counts are printed in the following order: newline, words, characters, bytes, maximum line length.
For example, to display only the number of words you would use:
wc -w /proc/cpuinfo
Here is another example that will print the number of lines and the length of the longest line.
wc -lL /proc/cpuinfo
448 792 /proc/cpuinfo
--files0-from=F option allows
wc to read input from the files specified by NUL-terminated names in file
- then read names from standard input. For example, you can search for files using the
find command and provide those files as an input to
find /etc -name 'host*' -printf0 | wc -l --files0-from=-
The output will show the number of lines for all files in the
/etc directory whose names start with “host”:
4 /etc/host.conf 27 /etc/avahi/hosts 1 /etc/hostname 14 /etc/hosts 46 total
Count the Number of Lines
wc command is mostly used with the
-l option to count only the number of lines in a text file. For example, to count the number of lines in the
/etc/passwd file you would type:
wc -l /etc/passwd
The first column is the number of lines and the second one is the name of the file:
Count the Number of Words
To to count only the number of words in a text file use
wc -w followed by the file name. The following example counts the number of words in the
wc -l /etc/passwd
The number of words is shown in the first column:
Wc Command Examples
wc command can be used in combination with other commands through piping. Here are a few examples.
Counting Files in the Current Directory
find command passes a list of all files in the current directory with each file name on a single line to the
wc command, which counts the number of lines and prints the result:
find . -type f | wc -l
Count the number of users
In the example below
wc is used to count the number of lines from the output of the
getent command .
getent passwd | wc -l
wc command stands for “word count” and has a quite simple syntax. It allows you to count the number of lines, words, bytes, and characters in one or multiple text files.
If you have any questions or feedback, feel free to leave a comment.